School of Business Administration April 3, 2013
-Knowledge Vital to Contemporary Life-
Our daily lives are sustained by goods and services provided by business enterprises-indeed, life would hardly be possible without them. Thus, it is vital to us all that we understand the corporate world and utilize what it has to offer in our own lives. Management has become an essential field of study for our times.
Students in the Management program learn the principles and mechanisms by which business enterprises function as economic actors. First, a frame of reference is established by studying the principles and history of business administration. Students then learn about a range of corporate management issues, from procurement, production, and sales, to finance and administration. The course's multilateral approach draws not only on economics but also on sociology, psychology, law, and engineering, among other fields. Important issues addressed include corporate ethics, corporate philanthropy, and corporate concern for the global environment.
Principles of Business Administration
Keywords: social science, business economics, business enterprise, corporate goals, corporate governance
In the study of business administration, two basic questions must first be answered: "What is the nature of business administration as an academic discipline?" and "What is a business enterprise?" These questions are examined in depth, focusing on the nature of business administration as a discipline, business enterprises and management, corporate goals, joint-stock companies, corporate governance, etc. The aim is to lay a foundation for the study of other subjects in the Business Administration program.
Keywords: production, cost, fixed cost, management suspension, crisis management
The theory of production management, which deals with questions of corporate production, is one of the functional theories of business administration. Production - the planning, implementation, and control of all corporate actions directly related to producing goods - is, of course, the most important function of business enterprises. This course mainly addresses issues relating to corporate production systems and attempts an analysis from the viewpoints of production theory and cost theory. The aim is a deeper understanding of the mode of thinking based on cost theory.
Keywords: finance, capital procurement, capital management, the supply of and demand for funds, ability to pay
Financial management is the branch of business administration that deals with the flow of corporate funds; specifically, it deals with capital procurement - how capital is obtained from various sources - capital management - how the available capital is employed. Maintaining the ability to pay and earning profits are prime concerns. Major areas covered include capital procurement, capital structure, investment decisions, and disposal of profits.
Keywords: organization, goal, cohesion, adaptation
For both internal and external reasons, business enterprises need guidance and control. Companies are organizations, and their organizational control is the subject of this course, with a particular focus on the problems involved. These can be broadly divided into securing internal cohesion, and creating and realizing a concept that enables the organization to adapt to the external world.
Keywords: organization, individual, communication, leadership, human relations
This field of study concerns human behavior in business organizations, where conflict arises between the individual and the organization. The approach taken is generally dualistic, from the viewpoints of both the organization and the individual. This course draws on economics, sociology, psychology, law, political science, and other behavioral sciences to study a number of questions regarding business organizations, including their economic efficiency, organizational structure, communications, organizational strategies, motivation, leadership, and human relations.
Keywords: labor, labor force, worker, labor management, labor-management relations, wages
In a business enterprise, "labor" means the work performed by a worker in the workplace. Although labor is a commodity and the worker is not, the two cannot be separated and the labor alone delivered to the company. Thus, management of labor gives rise to complex issues not present in the case of other production factors. Labor-management relations (relations between labor unions and employers or managers) are also an important problem area.
Small Business Management
Keywords: network, subcontracting, venture business, local industry
First, small businesses are discussed in terms of their status, form, and theoretical basis, together with the problems they have faced during the industrial restructuring in recent years, which has been marked by deregulation, the rise of information technology, and international specialization. The course also examines how small business management has been affected by several notable recent developments, including the use of subcontracting systems, and organization and networking among small businesses.
Theory of the Enterprise
Keywords: form of business organization, joint-stock company, public enterprise, entrepreneurial spirit, corporate governance
Business enterprises today have reached a scale and complexity that give them an unprecedented degree of influence, for better or worse, on people's lives - not only the lives of their owners and stockholders, but also those of employees, consumers, local residents, and, ultimately, members of society as a whole. The course takes up a number of questions concerning business enterprises (e.g.: For whose sake do they exist? For what purpose? What is their ideal form?) and considers the issues from economic, legal, organizational, and social perspectives.
Keywords: family merchant business, professional manager, managerial enterprises, Japanese-style personnel and labor management
Dividing the history of business management in Japan into the early modern era (family merchant businesses), early to mid-Meiji Period (1868-late 1800s), late Meiji and early Showa Periods (late 1800s to 1940s), and the postwar era (1945- ), the course explains the changing management strategies of business operators and the systems they created, directed, and controlled in order to put those strategies into effect.
History of Business Administration
Keywords: business economics, management theory, theoretical development, schools of thought in business administration
The modern field of business administration evolved in the early 20th century, mainly in Germany, the U.S.A., and Japan. American scholars developed practical management theories, while the German school pursued scientific principles and laws typical of a social science; in Japan, the field developed independently while being influenced by both schools. The course traces the theoretical development of the field in each of these countries, situating it in a social and economic context.
Keywords: decision-making, scientific problem-solving, numerical analysis, models, optimization
Management science is the analysis of management by scientific methods. The course examines methods of analyzing and solving decision-making problems in management objectively and logically, using mathematical or statistical methods, instead of a subjective approach based on intuition and experience. The procedure generally consists of expressing the problem in the form of an appropriate model, which is then manipulated to find the optimum solution.
Keywords: complex social system, social relations, authority, domination, labor participation in management
Management seen as a complex social system is studied using the formation of good social relations as an analytical criterion. This criterion can be applied, for example, to the relationships of human beings with technology or with other human beings, to relationships between management and the environment, and to cooperative systems. Based on analysis of the social consciousness of the members of such a system, the course examines issues that arise in business administration, e.g., those relating to labor, communications, authority, domination, class, and labor participation in management.
Keywords: psychological behavior, motive, need structure, volition, leadership
The theme of this course is individual psychological behavior in business management. When the individual is treated not as an object to be manipulated but as a subject deserving to be satisfied, the central question becomes how his or her motives can reach fulfillment. This leads to the study of need structures, aptitudes, volition, leadership, human relations, and so on; hence, the field tends toward a behavioral science approach and positive research.